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Thursday, June 24, 2021

Types Of Sanitary Fittings Used In A Building | Bathroom Accessories | Mirrors

 

SANITARY FITTINGS

• The fittings or an appliance used for collection and discharge of soil waste or waste matter is termed as sanitary fittings.

• Different types of sanitary fittings are required in a building to perform a different type of function.

• These fittings are glazed chinaware.

• These fittings are so designed and shaped that they have a non-absorbent surface which can be easily cleaned.

 

Types of Sanitary Fittings used in a Building

1.  Wash Basin.

2.  Sink.

3.  Bathtub.

4.  Urinals.

5.  Water Closet.

6.  Flushing Cisterns.

7.  Shower.

8.  Faucet

 

WASHBASIN

·       A Wash Basin is used for washing hands, face etc.

·       A Wash Basin is usually made of porcelain or enamelled iron etc, sometimes they are also made of pressed steel or plastic.

·       There are two types of washbasins- The flat back and The angle back.

·       An ordinary Wash Basin is mounted on brackets fixed on the wall. While a pedestal type basin are mounted on a pedestal rising from the wall.

·       The type of Wash Basin normally used in a house has an oval-shaped bowl with an overflow slot at top.

·       The flatback Wash Basin have provision for making holes for installing taps. Normally two pillar taps are provided one for cold and the other for hot water.

·       It has a circular waste hole for draining out wastewater from the basin.

·       A metallic strainer is provided in the waste hole which is connected to a waste pipe either directly or through a bottle trap for discharge of wastewater into the floor trap.

·       The top of Wash Basin should be kept at a height of 75 to 80 cm from the floor.

 

Standard size for flat back Washbasins are

25 inch by 17 inch

21 inch by 15 inch

17 inch by 12 inch

Standard sizes for angle back Washbasins are

24 inch by 18 inch

15 inch by 15 inch

 

 

WASHBASIN


 

Placement of Wash Basin

1.  Wall mounted

2.  Table mounted

 Tabletop basin

Under Countertop Wash Basin

3.  Pedestal

 

Wall mounted

 

Table mounted

 

Wash Basin

 

SINK

·       A sink is a rectangular basin used in the kitchen or laboratory for cleaning utensils and glassware.

·       These maybe made of glazed fire clay, stainless steel, plastic, marble, R.C.C.

·       The sink has an outlet(waste hole) usually of about 40mm diameter.

·       The waste hole is provided with gratings so that the entry of coarse solid substances is prevented.

·       The outlet pipe discharges water over a floor trap 

Types of sink

• Top mount

• Under-mount

• Farmhouse or apron

• Double bowl

• Single bowl

• Corner sink

 

Types of sink


Types of sink

Types of sink

 

Common sizes for kitchen sinks

600 x 400 x 150 mm

600 x 450 x 250 mm

750 x 450 x 250 mm

Common sizes for laboratory sink

400 x 250 x 150 mm

450 x 300 x 150 mm

600 x 400 x 200 mm

 

BATHTUBS

·       A Bathtub is a large or small container for holding water in which a person or animal can bathe.

·       A Bathtub is usually made of enamelled steel gel-coated fibreglass, reinforced enamelled porcelain, reinforced concrete finished with terracotta or marble finishes.

·       Modern bathtub have an overflow and waste drain and may have taps mounted on them.

·       There are two types of bathtub: Eastern style and Western-style.

 

Eastern style bathtub

In this, the bather lies down and these bathtubs are typically shallow and long.

Western-style bathtub

In this the bather sits up and are typically short and deep.

bathtub

 

Usual Dimensions Of Bathtub Are:

Length: 1.7 to 1.85 m

Width: 0.70 to 0.75 m

Depth: 0.6 m

 

 

Dimensions Of Bathtub

 

TYPES OF BATHTUBS

• Free Standing Bathtubs

• Claw Feet Bathtubs

• Drop-In Bathtubs

• Whirlpool Bathtubs

• Walk In Bathtubs

 

TYPES OF BATHTUBS

TYPES OF BATHTUBS

TYPES OF BATHTUBS

 

URINALS

·       It fall under the category of soil appliance and the discharge from urinals is connected to soil pipe either directly or through trap provided with gun-metal or brass domed shaped removable grating.

·       From hygienic considerations it is desirable to provide glazed tiles on walls of urinals preferable upto door height.

·       Urinals consume less water while flushing as compared to W.C.

·       Urinals are generally made of stainless steel and glazed earthen ware, fire clay or white vitreous chinaware.

 

TYPES OF URINALS

Bowl type

This is a one-piece construction with integral flushing box rim having 12 hole suitably distributed for proper flushing. The urinal has an outlet horn at the bottom for connection to the trap. In case a number of urinals are required to be installed in a row, it is necessary to provide a vertical partition between them.

TYPES OF URINALS

 

Stab Or Stall Type

·       These are manufactured as a single unit or as a range of two or more units.

·       The width of single unit should be at least 2’6”.

·       The flushing is carried out using an automatic flushing cistern which operates at regular interval of 10 to 15 minutes.

·       The discharge from series of a stall in a row is usually carried through a glazed semi-circular a drain which has sharp fall toward the trap from where it is discharged into the soil pipe.

Stab Or Stall Type

TYPES OF URINALS


 

WATER CLOSET (W.C.)

• A water closet is a sanitary fitting which is designed to receive human excreta directly and convey to the septic tank or underground sewer through a trap.

• W.C. is connected to flushing cistern to flush the excreta from the closet to the soil pipe.

• W.C. is usually made of glazed earthenware, fire clay or white vitreous chinaware.

 

Types of W.C.

·       Indian or squatting type,

·       European type,

·       Anglo Indian type.

 

Indian or Squatting type

·       This type of W.C. is used in squatting position.

·       The W.C. consists of two pieces, i.e. porcelain pan and a P or S trap.

·       The W.C. pan along with the trap is fixed flush with the floor.

·       Footrest are provided on sides of the pan and the pan has an inbuilt flushing rim having a number of holes through which the flushing water from the cistern is discharged.

·       The content of the pan are removed by the gravity flush of water.

 

Indian or Squatting type

 

European type W.C.

·       This type of W.C. is used in sitting position over a plastic seat hinged to the appliance.

·       This is a pedestal type of appliance with a pan and a trap in a single piece.

·       The flushing rim of pan is connected to the cistern which may be of a high level type () or low-level type (30 cm above the W.C. or resting on the W.C.) for getting flushing water.

Types of European W.C. - Wash down type and siphonic type.

 

European type W.C.

 

European type W.C.

 

Wash down type

·       This is the most commonly used pattern in which the content are removed by the gravity flush of water discharges into the pan through the flushing rim of the pan.

·       Usually for ground floor the WC having S trap (outlet pointing vertically down) is used.

·       Whereas for installation on upper floor WC ending up with P trap is preferred

 

Siphonic Type

·       In this type, the content of the pan are removed by siphonic action when the cistern is flushed and water passes through the pan.

·       it has a special type of trap inbuilt within the pan is so shaped as to set up siphonic action when the water passes over the pan.  

·       Due to siphonic action the entire water along with waste get emptied from the pan into the soil pipe.

·       The W.C. has small after flush chamber inbuilt in the appliance, water from which re-seals the trap.

·       It may have one trap or two traps.

 

European type W.C.

 

European type W.C.

 

European type W.C.

 

Anglo Indian W.C.

·       This type of W.C. can be used both in squatting as well as in sitting position.

·       It is pedestal type and has an inbuilt trap.

·       The top of W.C. is provided for the footrest to permit it to be used in squatting position.

·       To use it as a European type W.C. the plastic seat is hinged onto the top of the pan to use it in a sitting position.

·       In this design, the fouling area of pan is less and the waste falls in water of trap and is flushed out as in European W.C.

 

Anglo Indian W.C.

 

 

FLUSHING CISTERN

·       It is used for storage and discharge of water for flushing of W.C. or urinals.

·       It is made of cast iron vitreous china or pressed steel plates or plastic.

·       The capacity varies from 10 to 15 liters.

·       When the cistern is fixed at a height of 1.8 to 2 m from the floor it is termed a high-level cistern made of cast iron.

·       The European W.C. is generally provided with low-level cistern made up of porcelain and it operated at a height of not more than 30 cm between the top of the pan and the underside of the cistern.

 

Types of Flushing Cisterns

1. Valveless siphonic type or bell type.

2. Valve fitted type or piston type.

3. Automatic flushing type.

 

Valve less siphonic type or bell type

• The bell type flushing cistern is rather noisy but may be used in factories and schools.

• The cistern is operated by chain being pulled over which lifts the bell.

• When the chain is released the bell falls thus displacing water under the bell down the sand pipe.

• Siphonic action is then created which empties the cistern.

Valve less siphonic type or bell type

 

Valve fitted or piston-type cistern

• When the lever is depressed sharply, the piston is lifted which displaces water over the siphon.

• Water discharging down the flush pipe takes some air with it and creates a partial vacuum in the siphon.

• The greater air pressure acting upon the water in the cistern forces water through the siphon until air is admitted under the piston which breaks the siphonic action.

Valve fitted or piston-type cistern

 

Automatic flushing cistern

• Automatic cistern is designed to discharge their contents of water at regular intervals into a urinal.

• The rate at which the water will flush depends upon the the rate at which the water is fed into the cistern and for a single installation this should not exceed ten litres per hour.

• These flush water automatically once in 10-15 minutes.

• To prevent wastage of water from these cisterns, at times when the cistern is not used such as at weekends, an automatic blow cut off device should be used.

Automatic flushing cistern

 

FAUCET

A small diameter, directly or indirectly, manually or automatically operated valve from which water is drawn.

 

Types of faucet

1. Ball faucet

2. Disc faucet

3. Cartridge faucet

4. Compression faucet

The first three are a type of washerless faucets since they do not use rubber or neoprene washer. And the latter is very much basic washer faucet.

 

Ball faucet

• Ball faucets are very common in kitchen sinks and were the first type of washerless faucet.

• They are identifiable by their single handle which moves over a rounded ball-shaped cap right above the base of the faucet spout.

• The ball faucet has a single handle that controls a special plastic or metal ball inside the faucet body.

Types of faucet

 

 

Disk faucet

• They are identifiable by their single lever over a wide cylindrical body.

• The disk faucet mixes hot and cold water inside a mixing chamber called a pressure balance cartridge.

• Two ceramic disks at the bottom of the chamber will raise and lower to control the volume of water flow.

• Temperature is controlled by a side-to-side rotation of the handle.

• These faucets are high quality, are very reliable and do not need repair more very often

 

Types of faucet

 

 

Cartridge faucet

• They are identifiable by how they feel when they operate than how they look.

• As opposed to a ball faucet that you push back to turn on, a single handle cartridge faucets operate in an "up/down" motion to adjust water volume and a "left/right" motion for temperature

 

Types of faucet

 

 

Compression faucet

Compression washer faucets are identifiable by their separate hot and cold water handles and their action requiring you to tighten the handles down to close off the water flow

 

Types of faucet

 

 

SHOWER

• A shower is a place in which a person bathes under a spray of warm or cold water indoors. there is a drain on the floor.

• Most showers have a temperature, spray pressure and adjustable shower head nozzle.

• Most common showers have a rod connecting nozzle aiming down on the user.

• Bathing in a shower is more efficient when compared to a bathtub because a shower uses less water. •

 

There are three types of showers

·       Public,

·       Domestic,

·       Wetroom

 

Public Shower

• Many modern athletic and aquatic facilities provide shower for use by participants,

• These can be in the form of individual stalls shielded by curtains or by a door or communal shower rooms.

 • Open showers are often provided at swimming pools and at popular beaches.

types of showers

 

Domestic Shower

• These are most commonly stall shower or shower over bathtub.

• It has a dedicated area which uses a door or curtain to contain water spray.

• Mostly domestic showers have a single head which may be adjusted.

• Cubicle shower has more than one shower head which provides a luxury bathing experience.

types of showers

 

Wet room

• A wet room is a bathroom without internal dedicated or raised area which has an open shower.

• Structurally a wet room requires the bathroom to have a gradient or slope towards a drain hole and foul air trap connecting the floor to the waste pipe.

 

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

Bathroom accessories upgrade your bathroom's look and functionality

 

Towel bars

Towel bars are an essential part of any bathroom, bringing both style and functionality to the room.

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Bathroom shelves

Bathroom shelves can offer fashionable storage options for bathroom or dressing area.

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Shower Basket

Shower baskets ensure that the shower stays organized and safe. Available in one and two-tier designs and fitting snugly in the corner of shower.

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Toilet paper holder

It is used to hold toilet paper and it is mounted near the W.C.

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Toilet brush holder

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Soap dispensers

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Toothbrush holder

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Bathroom hooks

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

Bathroom water heaters

 

BATHROOM ACCESSORIES

 

 

BATHROOM MIRRORS

No matter how much you decorate your bathroom, the beauty remains incomplete without an elegant bathroom mirror.


1. Shadow Box mirror

2. Framed Mirror

3. Frameless Mirror

4. Pivot Mirror

5. Venetian Mirror

6. Extension Mirror

7. Lighted Mirror

This type of mirrors finds in hotels, spa, doctors offices and even movies.

8. Wood Mirror

This type of mirrors found in hotels, spa, doctors offices and even movies.

9. Makeup Mirror

This type of mirrors finds in hotels, spa, doctors offices and even movies.

 

Types of Bathroom Mirrors



Types of Bathroom Mirrors

Types of Bathroom Mirrors

Types of Bathroom Mirrors

Types of Bathroom Mirrors




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